Sampling event

Presence-absence of plant habitat specialists in 15 patches

最新版本 由 University of Oslo 發佈於 2022年10月10日 University of Oslo
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We present three years of presence-absence data of 49 vascular plant species in 15 patches of dry, calcareous grassland habitat. The species are considered to be habitat specialists, and thus unlikely to occur in between the patches. The data set combines three years of surveys, the last of which are re-surveys of a subset described in previous publications (Bakkestuen et al., 2014; Evju et al., 2015, 2016; Evju & Sverdrup-Thygeson, 2016; Wollan et al., 2011). Absences can be inferred for the 49 species included.


此資源sampling event的資料已發佈為達爾文核心集檔案(DwC-A),其以一或多組資料表構成分享生物多樣性資料的標準格式。 核心資料表包含 45 筆紀錄。

亦存在 1 筆延伸集的資料表。延伸集中的紀錄補充核心集中紀錄的額外資訊。 每個延伸集資料表中資料筆數顯示如下。

Event (核心)

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Lieungh E, Wollan A K, Stabbetorp O E, Bjureke K (2022): Presence-absence of plant habitat specialists in 15 patches. v1.14. University of Oslo. Dataset/Samplingevent.



此資料的發布者及權利單位為 University of Oslo。 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.


此資源已向GBIF註冊,並指定以下之GBIF UUID: a99cf6c0-4eb2-476b-8414-a513f0925d86。  University of Oslo 發佈此資源,並經由GBIF Norway同意向GBIF註冊成為資料發佈者。


Samplingevent; checklist; vascular plants; specialist species; presence-absence data; calcareous grassland; habitat patch; metapopulation


Eva Lieungh
  • 元數據提供者
  • 出處
  • 連絡人
PhD student
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo
Anders Kvalvåg Wollan
  • 元數據提供者
  • 出處
Head Engineer
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo
Odd Egil Stabbetorp
  • 元數據提供者
  • 出處
Senior Research Scientist
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Kristina Bjureke
  • 元數據提供者
Assistant professor
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo
Olav Skarpaas
  • 元數據提供者
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo
Siri Lie Olsen
  • 元數據提供者
Associate professor
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Marianne Evju
  • 元數據提供者
Senior Research Scientist
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Kristina Bjureke
  • 元數據提供者
Assistand professor
Natural history museum, University of Oslo
Vegar Bakkestuen
  • 連絡人
Senior Research Scientist
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Rukaya Johaadien
  • 使用者
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo


The species were recorded in 15 polygons of dry, calcareous grassland on Gressholmen island, situated in the inner Oslo fjord. These calcareous grasslands occur naturally fragmented on shallow soils by the Oslo fjord, mainly on exposed and/or grazed Cambrian–Silurian marine sedimentary rock. The climate is relatively warm, with an annual temperature of 5.7 °C (Aune 1993) and annual precipitation of 763 mm (Førland 1993). The area is among the most species-rich in Norway, as this combination of calcareous bedrock and warm summers is rare, and hosts species mostly found further south in Europe. Dry, calcareous grasslands are characterised by drought-tolerant grasses, forbs, shrubs and occasionally trees. Interannual variability plays an important role; intense droughts keep competitive vegetation away from the driest patches. The summer of 2018 was exceptionally dry and hot, visibly impacting the vegetation the following years. Many drought-intolerant plants and young trees died, and some of our habitat specialists came back in full vigour the next season. Though originally defined as naturally tree-less, the borders are transient between naturally tree-less and potentially forested semi-natural habitats kept open by grazing. The habitat patches surveyed also include semi-natural vegetation where dry pine forest could grow. Humans have shaped and impacted the habitats on Gressholmen, probably as long as the Oslo fjord has been settled. Today, the island is artificially connected to two other islands, Heggholmen and Rambergøya. Most of this island trio is protected as nature reserves, but has previously housed a shooting range, Norway’s first main airport, a soap factory with connected houses, and a paint factory. It has likely been grazed by domestic animals while the island was inhabited. From the 1970’s until its eradication in 2007, a large rabbit population occupied the islands and grazed the vegetation heavily. Several summerhouses and a restaurant are still in use, and the islands are a popular destination for day-trips in the summer.

界定座標範圍 緯度南界 經度西界 [59.882, 10.717], 緯度北界 經度東界 [59.887, 10.727]


The data set encompasses 49 specialist vascular plant species. The list of habitat specialist species was developed based on flora information of habitat requirements and distributional range, expert opinion and field observations from a large number of polygons. More vascular plant species were recorded in the first two years, and are available upon request. Field surveyors used Lid’s Flora (2005) and Mossberg & Stenberg (2012). Species names were checked and updated using the Species Nomenclature Database, along with common names in Norwegian.

Species Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy (Bakkemynte), Androsace septentrionalis L. (Smånøkkel), Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. (Bergskrinneblom), Asplenium ruta-muraria L. (Murburkne), Avenula pratensis (L.) Dumort. (Enghavre), Carex caryophyllea Latourr. (Vårstarr), Carlina vulgaris L. (Stjernetistel), Centaurea scabiosa L. (Fagerknoppurt), Cerastium semidecandrum L. (Vårarve), Cotoneaster scandinavicus B.Hylmö (Dvergmispel), Cotoneaster niger (Wahlb.) Fr. (Svartmispel), Cynoglossum officinale L. (Hundetunge), Draba verna L. (Vårrublom), Dracocephalum ruyschiana L. (Dragehode), Echium vulgare L. (Ormehode), Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser (Rødflangre), Erysimum virgatum Roth (Berggull), Filipendula vulgaris Moench (Knollmjødurt), Fragaria viridis Weston (Nakkebær), Geranium sanguineum L. (Blodstorkenebb), Hypochaeris maculata L. (Flekkgrisøre), Inula salicina L. (Krattalant), Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort. (Sprikepiggfrø), Lepidium campestre (L.) W.T.Aiton (Markkarse), Ligustrum vulgare L. (Liguster), Linum catharticum L. (Vill-lin), Lithospermum officinale L. (Legesteinfrø), Myosotis ramosissima Rochel (Bakkeforglemmegei), Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. & Schult. (Dvergforglemmegei), Myosurus minimus L. (Muserumpe), Odontites litoralis Fr. (Strandrødtopp), Phleum phleoides (L.) H.Karst. (Smaltimotei), Poa compressa L. (Flatrapp), Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce (Kantkonvall), Potentilla crantzii (Crantz) Beck ex Fritsch (Flekkmure), Rhamnus cathartica L. (Geitved), Rosa majalis Herrm. (Kanelrose), Saxifraga granulata L. (Nyresildre), Saxifraga osloënsis Knaben (Oslosildre), Saxifraga tridactylites L. (Trefingersildre), Scleranthus perennis L. (Flerårsknavel), Seseli libanotis (L.) W.D.J.Koch (Hjorterot), Silene nutans L. (Nikkesmelle), Aria edulis (Willd.) M.Roem. (Sølvasal), Thymus pulegioides L. (Bakketimian), Veronica arvensis L. (Bakkeveronika), Veronica spicata L. (Aksveronika), Woodsia alpina (Bolton) Gray (Fjell-lodnebregne)
Variety Poa alpina alpina (frøfjellrapp)


起始日期 / 結束日期 2009-07-07 / 2009-07-10
起始日期 / 結束日期 2019-07-01 / 2019-08-16
起始日期 / 結束日期 2020-06-04 / 2020-06-22


The PhD project of Eva Lieungh

計畫名稱 Dynamic Distribution Modelling
經費來源 Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research



Field work in 2009 was carried out by KB, OES, and AKW, all experienced botanists. Potential locations of dry, calcareous grassland had been identified by aerial photos and distribution modelling. The locations were then visited by the field work team (KB, OES, and AKW) and either discarded or confirmed and delimited. Polygon coordinate points were recorded using a handheld GPS with an estimated accuracy of 1-10 m. All three in the team looked for species in the same polygon, one being in charge of writing down occurrences. When no new species were found, all three tried to find one more species each before declaring the list complete. Species lists per polygon were noted in a weatherproof notebook. Field work in 2019 and 2020 surveys was carried out by EL alone. Polygons were found using a map with semi-transparent polygons over a recent aerial photo. Species presences were recorded in a spreadsheet on a smartphone with daily backups. Polygons were inventoried by carefully walking back and forth across the polygon to cover the entire area. EL took pictures of each polygon, and of uncertain species using the iNaturalist app.

研究範圍 Field surveys were carried out in 2009, 2019, and 2020. All vascular plant species inside the 15 habitat polygons were recorded in 2009 and 2019, but only the habitat specialists’ occurrences are reported in this data set. In 2020, only the 49 habitat specialists were looked for.
品質控管 We took several steps to quality check the data. Each occurrence was evaluated manually to ensure the highest possible quality of data. After data collection was complete in 2019 and 2020, each observation was checked against the data from the previous year(s), occurrences in GBIF, and pictures taken during field work. Some uncertainty was resolved using iNaturalist, where image recognition and other users can aid identification, and where pictures were stored for individual plants along with their coordinates and other metadata. Some pictures were also sent to OS, SLO and other experts to confirm uncertain species identifications. An additional trip to Gressholmen by EL along with SLO was carried out in september 2019, and alone in June 2020, to check uncertain presences and suspected false absences.


  1. For 2009 and 2019, there is more data available than was described here. These data include all vascular plant species, not just the specialists, and some additional descriptive variables for each polygon.
  2. In spite of quality control, some uncertainty remains. Delineating polygons inevitably involves uncertainties, and GPS polygon boundaries were not physically delimited in the field. In addition, changes in patch size may have occurred between 2009 and 2019, due to regrowth or other factors. To a smaller degree this is also an issue between the 2019 and 2020 data. False absences may occur in the data set, which is common in field surveys (Morrison 2016), either from incomplete survey effort, or because the species was not detectable at the time of field work. As flowering phenology varies, early-flowering species (e.g. Veronica arvensis, Draba verna) are especially susceptible to being omitted, even though special care was taken to look for them. Misidentification could also occur, though the availability of previous data and use of trained botanists with expert knowledge of the local flora should minimise this risk.


  1. Lid, J., and D. T. Lid. Norsk Flora. Edited by R. Elven. 7th edition. Oslo, NO: Samlaget, 2005. ISBN: 9788252160291
  2. Aune, B. (1993). Temperaturnormaler normalperiode 1961-1990 (No. 02/93; Klima, Vol. 2, pp. 1–63). Norwegian Meteorological Institute.
  3. Bakkestuen, V., Stabbetorp, O., Molia, A., & M., E. (2014). Hotspot åpen grunnlendt kalkmark i Oslofjordområdet. Beskrivelse av habitatet og forslag til overvåkingsopplegg fra ARKO-prosjektet [Hotspot open clacareos vegetation on shallow soils in the Oslo fjord. Habitat description and suggested monitoring scheme from the ARKO project] (No. 1102; NINA Rapport, Vol. 1102, p. 46). ISBN: 978-82-426-2722-3
  4. Evju, M., Blumentrath, S., Skarpaas, O., Stabbetorp, O. E., & Sverdrup-Thygeson, A. (2015). Plant species occurrence in a fragmented grassland landscape: The importance of species traits. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 547–561. DOI 10.1007/s10531-014-0835-y
  5. Evju, M., Stange, E., Berger, A. L., Blumentrath, S., Endrestøl, A., Olsen, S. L., Skarpaas, O., Stabbetorp, O. E., Stöckmann, F., & Sverdrup-Thygeson. (2016). Når artenes leveområder splittes opp – eksempler fra øyene i indre Oslofjord. Sluttrapport fra strategisk instituttsatsing (SIS) [When species’ habitats are fragmented – examples from the inner Oslo fjord islands.] 2011-2015 (No. 065; p. 54). Norwegian Institute for Nature Research. ISBN: 978-82-426-2885-5
  6. Evju, M., & Sverdrup-Thygeson, A. (2016). Spatial configuration matters: A test of the habitat amount hypothesis for plants in calcareous grasslands. Landscape Ecology, 31(9), 1891–1902.
  7. Førland, E. J. (1993). Nedbørnormaler normalperiode 1961-1990 (No. 39/93; Klima, pp. 1–63). Norwegian Meteorological Institute.
  8. Wollan, A. K., Bakkestuen, V., Bjureke, K., Bratli, H., Endrestøl, A., Stabbetorp, O. E., Sverdrup-Thygeson, A., & Halvorsen, R. (2011). Åpen grunnlendt kalkmark i Oslofjordområdet – et hotspot-habitat. Sluttrapport under ARKO-prosjektets periode II [Dry, calcareous grasslands in the Oslo fjord area—A hotspot habitat. End report for the ARKO project phase II]. NINA-rapport 713. NINA. ISBN: 978-82-426-2300-3
  9. Morrison, L. W. (2016). Observer error in vegetation surveys: A review. Journal of Plant Ecology, 9(4), 367–379. doi:10.1093/jpe/rtv077
  10. Halvorsen, R., Skarpaas, O., Bryn, A., Bratli, H., Erikstad, L., Simensen, T., & Lieungh, E. (2020). Towards a systematics of ecodiversity: The EcoSyst framework. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 29(11), 1887–1906.
  11. iNaturalist. Available from Accessed 22.02.2022.
  12. Mossberg, B., & Stenberg, L. (2012). Gyldendals store nordiske flora (2nd ed.). Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. ISBN: 978-82-05-42485-2


目的 The data set was collected for use in a manuscript in EL's PhD project.
維護說明 We do not plan to update or add to the data set regularly.
替代的識別碼 a99cf6c0-4eb2-476b-8414-a513f0925d86